Please watch this video from Collin Cunningham. Collin’s Lab: Arduino This short video tells you so much of what you need to know about Arduino to get started!
Breadboards (also called solderless breadboards) allow you to wire circuits by sticking the ends of wires and components into the holes to make connections. Each numbered row of five holes is connected inside the breadboard. The gap down the middle of the board separates the two halves, so rows on the left are not connected to rows on the right. The long + and – rows on either side are different. They are connected all the way down the board. The schematic below shows how the rows are connected.
This comic by Jody Culkin (from http://makezine.com/2012/10/03/breadboard-workshop-pdfs/) has a much more detailed explanation of how we use breadboards.Breadboard Workshop Comic
Here’s another great tutorial on breadboards: https://learn.adafruit.com/breadboards-for-beginners